Annex A - Group Research Proposal (Science)

Names: Ain Nuha Bte Hazlan, Liew Yee Theng, Tan Ek Hern
Class: S2-03       
Group Reference: E   

  1. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting: 

[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research 
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum 

[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I) 
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography 

[ √ ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals 

[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene  

[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

[    ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  

  1. Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:

Title: Investigation on how dissolving chemicals in water changes the freezing point of a solution.

  1. Question or Problem being addressed
Does the amount of chemical dissolved in water increases the freezing point of water?

  1. Goals / Expected Outcomes / Hypotheses
The higher amount of dissolving chemicals in water, the lower the freezing point of water.

  1. Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
  • Amount of water added
  • Duration of experiment
  • Surrounding room temperature
  • Type of water
  • Type of chemicals used
  • Type of water used
Amount of chemicals added (ml)
The freezing temperature of chemical solution (℃)

Equipment list:  

  • Data Logger
  • Temperature Probe
  • Gram balance
  • 1 250ml beaker
  • 5 Test tubes
  • Stirrer
  • Permanent markers
  • 400ml Beaker
  • 100 mL graduated cylinder

  • Table salt (Sodium chloride/ NaCl)
  • Water (H2O)
  • Ice


1. Fill a 400ml beaker 3/4 full of ice. Put salt into the beaker of ice and mix the the ice and the salt along with a stirring rod. This is the ice bath to freeze the various solutions. This mixture has to be at least -10 ℃. Remove any excess water that has melted to prolong the ice bath.

  1. Label the 5 test tubes to test tube 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Different test tubes will contain different solutions:

  • Test liquid #1 = 0g NaCl in 100mL water
  • Test liquid #2 = 15 g NaCl in 100 mL water
  • Test liquid #3 = 20 g NaCl in 100 mL water
  • Test liquid #4 = 25 g NaCl in 100 mL water
  • Test liquid #5 = 30 g NaCl in 100 mL water

The ones with salt added in the test tube would be weighed by a gram scale. Place each test tube one at a time in the ice bath.

3. Allow some time for the solution in the test tube to cool down. After about 5 minutes, insert the temperature probe that is connected to the data logger into the test tube. Wait until the temperature reaches a fixed temperature. The temperature is the freezing point of the solution inside the beaker.

Do this for the other test tubes with other solutions for at least 3 times. 

Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

Preparation of the Ice Bath
1. Fill the Styrofoam cup (or 400 mL beaker) 3/4 full with ice.
2. Cover the ice with 1/4 to 1/2 inches of table salt.
3. Stir this ice-salt mixture with a spoon or stirring rod.
  1. Use the thermometer to check the temperature of the ice-salt mixture. It should be at least −10° C.

Experiment on the Freezing Point of different solutions
1. Label one of the test tubes and one of the 250 mL beakers as "#1".

2. Prepare the first test liquid in the beaker labeled #1.
  • Put beaker "#1" on the gram scale.
  • Zero the gram scale. 
  • Put table salt (NaCl) into the beaker (Look at 7a - 7e to check for amount of NaCl to be dissolved into the solution in various beakers.
  • Take the beaker off the scale and place the beaker on a stable surface.
  • Measure 100 mL of water in a graduated cylinder, and pour it into the beaker with the salt. Stir with a spoon or stirring rod until all of the crystals are dissolved.
  • Rinse the spoon or stirring rod with water.

3. Fill test tube #1 half-way full with test liquid #1. Place the test tube in the styrofoam cup with the ice and salt.
  • The liquid in the test tube should be below the level of the ice and salt in the cup.
  • Any ice or salt from the cup is not allowed to get into the test tube.

4. Stir the test liquid in the test tube gently with a thermometer while keeping track of the temperature.

5. When the first ice crystals appear on the inside wall of the test tube, the temperature will be taken down into the log book. The temperature is the freezing point of the test liquid.

6. Empty the test tube, and then refill the same test tube with fresh test liquid #1. Repeat steps 6 through 8 with a new sample. Then empty and refill the test tube again, repeating steps 6 through 8 for a third time. 
To make more of the test liquid, repeat step 3.

7. Repeat steps 2 through 7 for each of the remaining test liquids, making sure to use a different beaker and test tube for each of the test liquids. Ensure that all beakers are labelled so as to avoid confusion.
  • Test liquid #1 = 0g NaCl in 100mL water
  • Test liquid #2 = 15 g NaCl in 100 mL water
  • Test liquid #3 = 20 g NaCl in 100 mL water
  • Test liquid #4 = 25 g NaCl in 100 mL water
  • Test liquid #5 = 30 g NaCl in 100 mL water
  • Calculate the freezing point depression, ΔT, for all three replicates of each of the NaCl and sucrose solutions. Record these values for ΔT in the group’s lab notebook.
  • First, average the freezing point temperatures you observed for plain water, test liquid #7. This averaged temperature will be the solvent freezing temperature.
  • Re-arrange the terms in Equation 3 of the Introduction to figure out how to calculate ΔT.

8. Average the freezing point depression, ΔT, for each of the NaCl and sucrose solutions. Record these averages in the group’s log book for comparison.

9.Using the results collected in Table 1, compare the the results collected in Table 2 to see whether the freezing point of the solution changes as stated in the formula.

• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

The ice and salt combination used in the experiment can be too cold for our bare hands itself, thus, one can be injured from the ice burnt. With that, we will be wearing rubber gloves while doing our experiments. Since all the experiments will be done in the lab, there are also lab precautions that we would have to follow, such as: 
1. Students must not enter or work in laboratories unless a teacher is present.
2. Students must not enter laboratory storerooms or preparation rooms.
3. Students with long hair should have their hair tied back to avoid any interference with laboratory work.
4. Students must not eat, drink or play in laboratories.
5. Students should always work thoughtfully and purposefully. Practical jokes and other acts of carelessness are strictly prohibited.
6.  Unauthorized experiments are prohibited.
7. Students must wear safety goggles whenever there is any risk of injury to the eyes.
8. Students must put on protective gloves and clothing must be worn when handling hazardous materials.
9.  Students must not touch any equipment, apparatus or chemicals that are not required for the experiment(s) of the practical lesson unless specifically instructed by the teacher to do so.
10. Students must report any damaged equipment, breakages, leakages and accidents immediately to the teacher and/or technician.
11. Students who break any glassware/apparatus must record in the Breakage Form immediately.
12. Students must keep workbench clean and tidy at all times. At the end of each practical lesson, students must clear up, wipe and dry the workbench before leaving the laboratory.
13. Students must wash their hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory, regardless of whether or not gloves are worn.
14. Students are not allowed to take any apparatus (including broken apparatus) or chemicals out of the laboratory.
15. Students must read the label on the containers to ensure the right chemicals are collected and used. 
16. Students must never touch chemicals with their bare hands: use a spatula to transfer solids and a dropper for liquids.
17. Students must never taste chemicals unless specifically directed by the teacher.
18.  Students should never return unused/excess chemicals to the stock container to prevent contamination of the stock solutions/solids.
19. Students should dispose waste materials properly in designated waste bins: used paper in general waste bin, gloves in biohazard bag or bin, sharps (such as needles or pins) in puncture-proof container.
20. Students should report all accidents, injuries, breakage and spillage to the teacher immediately.
21. Should a chemical get into  the mouth,  students should  spit it out and rinse mouth with plenty of water.
22. If any chemical comes into contact with other parts of your body or clothing,  students should wash thoroughly with plenty of water and report to your teacher.

Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

We will use a table to plot out all our findings. With this, we can compare the difference between the solution of various amount of NaCl in water and the control which is purely water. With the collected data we have gotten from the experiments, we are able to conclude whether the amount of chemicals dissolved in the water affects the freezing point of the water from comparing our observations.

Title: Experimental Findings

  1. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order. 

Clackamas Community College. (n.d.) Freezing Point Depression. Retrieved July 15 2013, from

College of DuPage. (n.d.) Freezing Point Depression. Retrieved July 17, 2013 from

Eli, Todd & Keith. (n.d.). "Colligative Properties," Chemworld, ThinkQuest Library, Oracle Education Foundation. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from

George State University. (n.d.) Freezing Point Depression. Retrieved July 17, 2013 from

J.B. Condon, Roana State Community College. (n.d.) Retrieved July 17, 2013 from

Lachish, U. (2000). Avogadro's Number, Atomic and Molecular Weight. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from

MacQuade, J., et al. (1986). It's Getting Colder (Freezing Point Depression). Retrieved July 10, 2013, from

Purdue University. (n.d.) Freezing Point Depression. Retrieved July 17, 2013 from

Science Buddies Organization. (n.d.). Chemistry of Ice-Cream Making: Lowering the Freezing Point of Water. Retrieved July 11, 2013 from

Wayne Schmidt. (n.d.) The Fascinating World Of Salt And Ice. Retrieved July 17 2013, from

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